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   2014| January-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 3, 2017

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The study of different presentations of breast lumps in radiographic imaging
Shalini Saraswat, Amit Kumar
January-June 2014, 1(1):45-51
Introduction: Breast USG is an established and accurate tool for the primary evaluation of breast lumps and pathology. It also compliments X-ray mammography in further evaluation and characterization of breast masses and thus avoids surgeries in benign breast diseases and pathology. Method: For USG examination of the breast lumps, a linear-array transducer of 5-7 MHz frequency is required with a good resolution machine. Results: We present a pictorial essay on the role of USG in evaluation and characterization of various breast lumps and pathology. Conclusion: Breast sonography considerably improves the visualization and evaluation of lumps in mammographically radiodense breasts and helpful in the characterization of it, either as solid or cystic lesion. It also improves the specificity of X-ray mammography when used as an adjunct to it. It is also helpful in guiding FNAC/biopsy from the breast masses.
  12,334 290 -
Pulmonary function assessment in young female medical students suffering from anemia
Sharad Jain, JL Agarwal
January-June 2014, 1(1):3-5
Introduction: Anemia is common problem in people of high socioeconomic status of all age group. This is usually seen with reduced work capacity, early fatigability, mental irritation, dyspnea etc. Despite of good and easy availability of food, young girls of high socioeconomic status still remain anemic mainly due to lack of self care in terms of nutritional diet, somewhat hate for green leafy vegetables, charm of junk foods devoid of nutritional substances including iron, inadequate physical exercise. Present study was conducted to assess the pulmonary functions in young anemic female medical students belonging to high socioeconomic status. Methods: Based on Hemoglobin level subjects were divided in to 2 groups. Group 1 comprised of obese students (Hb>12 gm/dl) and group 2 comprised of anemic students (Hb<12gm/dl). Age, height and weight, of all subjects were noted. Body mass index was calculated by dividing weight (in Kg) with height in meter2. Data obtained were analyzed using t-test. Result: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), FEV1 and Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) in anemic group subjects were significantly lower in comparison to control group. However FEV1/FVC did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: Anemia leads to decreased pulmonary functions which further hampers the oxygenation of the tissue and may worsen the physical and mental capabilities.
  2,276 135 -
Cytomorphometrical analysis of exfoliated buccal mucosal cells: Effect of smoking
Sumit Babuta, Rohin Garg, Khushboo Mogra, Neha Dagal
January-June 2014, 1(1):22-27
Introduction: Exfoliative cytology is a non-aggressive, non-invasive procedure with higher patient compliance and is therefore, an attractive technique for the early diagnosis of oral lesions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare cytological changes using morphometric analysis of the exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in smokers, with results obtained for non-smokers. Methods: Smears were collected from the clinically normal buccal mucosa of 120 individuals. Age range of subjects taken was 40-60 years. Smears were then stained with Papanicolaou stain. Results: Mean NA for smokers was significantly elevated compared with the mean NA for non-smokers. Mean CA in smokers was decreased as compared to non-smokers but the diff erence was not significant. Also, N/C ratio was significantly elevated in smokers group. With increasing heavy exposure in duration of years, Cytomorphometric changes show significant altered values for all three measured parameters (NA, CA and N/C ratio). Conclusion: Increase in NA and decreased CA as well as altered N/C ratio would appear to be due to smoking tobacco. Cytomorphometric analysis can be used regularly to detect these cell alterations. Th is method can also aid in motivating individuals to withdraw from adverse eff ects of tobacco smoking. Currently, use of exfoliative cytology has increased as an adjunct to screening of precancerous lesions and malignancies of the oral cavity.
  1,888 201 -
Osteoscopic assessment of sexual dimorphism in hip bone
Alok Kumar Chaudhary, Sanjeev Kumar Jain
January-June 2014, 1(1):28-31
Introduction: The pelvis is most sexually dimorphic and is the first bone assessed in sex determination because it is the skeletal element most affected by reproduction and parturition.[1] The assessment of the pelvis is made through metric measurements as well as through the visual analysis of non-metric traits; both important aspects of the analysis. The best methods for determining sex from adult skeletal remains involve measurement and inspection of the hip bone that presents a number of gender-related anatomical differences.[2] Most osteologists visually (stereoscopic) evaluate these differences and integrate this subjective assessment ofhip bonemorphology into their sex determinations. The aim of thepresent study is to visually evaluate sexual differences in hip bone and comparing its efficacy with metric assessment. Methods: This study is done on 46 hip bones of adult individuals of known sex from museum of department of anatomy of SGRRIM&HS Dehradun and TMMC&RC Moradabad, India. All these hip bones were visually examined and under mentioned five characters of the hip bone were used, (A) aspects of the preauricular surface, (B) aspects of the greater sciatic notch, (C) the form of the composite arch, (D) the morphology of the inferior pelvis, and (E) ischiopubic proportions. Results: In this study traits of the group (A) were most sexually dimorphic while traits of the group (E) were least sexually dimorphic. Conclusion: Diagnostic accuracy is excellent when the complete hip bone is available. Hip bone features used for sex determination by visual assessment seem to be fairly stable.
  1,875 105 -
Pattern of orthopaedic injuries among patients attending the emergency department in a tertiary care hospital – An analytical study
Najmul Huda, Pankaj Gupta, Ajay Pant, Asif Iqbal, M Julfiqar, Mohd Zahid Khan, Nitin Kumar Agrawal
January-June 2014, 1(1):10-14
Introduction: This study was aimed at analyzing the pattern of Orthopaedic injuries among patients attending the Emergency department in a tertiary care hospital. Retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedics, Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College & Research Centre. Methods: The record analysis of injured patients seen at the emergency department over a 12 months period from June 2012 to may 2013 was done. The data was analyzed with special reference tothepattern of Orthopaedic injuries. Results: A total of 1110 records of injured patients that attended the emergency department were analyzed. Study showed that the majority of victims were in the age group of 11-44 years (n=909, 81.89 percent). 71.09 percent (n=789) were males and 28.9 percent (n=321) were females. Road traffic accident was the most common cause of injuries being responsible for 59.72 percent, (n=663) followed by fall from height (22.5 percent, n=247). Study revealed that the most common presentation of injuries was fracture (68.64 percent, n=762) and the most common site was lower limbs in 48.16 percent cases, (n=367). Next most common site was upper limbs (28.08 percent, n=214) followed by pelvic fracture (10.01 percent, n=77), spine fractures (8.26 percent, n=63), facial fracture (2.88 percent, n=22) & Ribs fracture (2.49 percent, n=19). There were 71.65 percent cases (n=546) of simple fracture and 28.34 percent cases (n=216) of the compound fracture. There were 3.87 percent cases (n=43), of various dislocations, shoulder dislocation being the most common. Crush injury was seen in 7.5 percent cases. Most commonly associated visceral injury wasthehead injury in 17.20 percent cases (n=191). Conclusion: Fractures were the most common pattern of Orthopaedic injuries, frequently associated with head injuries. Research in to appropriate strategies for prevention of injuries, especially RTA is required in tertiary care hospitals.
  1,745 186 -
Supraorbital foramen - Morphometric study and clinical implications in adult Indian skulls
Nidhi Sharma, Rohit Varshney, Nafis Ahmad Faruqi, Farah Ghaus
January-June 2014, 1(1):6-9
Introduction: Supraorbital foramen is an important site for various surgical and anesthetic procedures. Accurate localization of the foramen holds the key to success, although racial variations exist in various population groups. The study included the morphometry of supraorbital foramen and its location with respect to nearby anatomical landmarks. Methods: A total of 100 dry skulls (60 male and 40 female) were collected and observed for the study. Various parameters in the sagittal and transverse planes were noted from supraorbital foramen on both sides, together with its vertical and horizontal dimensions. In addition, the location of supraorbital foramen with respect to midline and frontozygomatic suture were noted. Results: The study of 100 adult skulls revealed that the SON (71% on right and 70% on left) was found more frequently than the SOF (29% on right and 30% on left). The distance between centre of SOF/SON and midline was found to be statistically significant on right and left sides. Conclusions: This study makes possible the identification of exact position of supraorbital foramen and also discuss its racial variation.
  1,777 112 -
Localized urticaria with intravenous ondansetron: A case report
Rohit Varshney, Gaurav Jain
January-June 2014, 1(1):39-40
Ondansetron is an effective antiemetic agent widely used to control nausea and vomiting associated with malignancy and surgery. Although hypersenstivity reactions have been reported with ondansetron in connection with emetogenic chemotherapy, it has been rarely addressed under perioperative settings. This case highlights the need of increased awareness among anaesthesiologists regarding the allergic potential of ondansetron and emphasize for judicious administration of this drug with adequate emergency backup.
  1,682 100 -
Use of airtraq optical laryngoscope for naso-tracheal intubation in anaesthetized patients
Sunny Malik, Shahin N Jamil, Shraddha Malik, Rohit Varshney
January-June 2014, 1(1):41-42
Reported is a case of successful Nasotracheal intubation using Airtraq optical laryngoscope in a patient of fracture zygomatic arch with cervical spine injury. The patient had predicted difficult direct laryngoscopy with restricted mouth opening.
  1,433 82 -
A huge mucinous cystadenoma complicating third trimester of pregnancy with previous two caesarean sections
Nirmal Pangtey, Priyanka Chauhan, Usha Rawat, Geeta Jain
January-June 2014, 1(1):43-44
The incidence of ovarian tumor complicating caesarean section was about 1 in 200 caesarean births while ovarian tumors complicated termination of pregnancy in 1 of 594 procedures. Any type of Ovarian mass can be encountered during pregnancy, but the most common are cystic. Because pregnant women are usually young, malignant tumors are relatively uncommon. A patient third gravida with previous 2 caesarean sections presented in an emergency with complaints of persistent pain in abdomen for last 7 days with gestational age of 35 weeks and 3 days. Emergency Caesarean section was done to deliver an alive male baby of 2.25 Kg with good Apgar score. Intraoperative finding was suggestive of a huge multiloculated left ovarian mass of approximately. 40×30×15 cm weighing 20 Kg with straw coloured mucinous fl uid. Up to 3 liters of fl uid aspirated before delivering the cyst out of the abdomen. Left salpingoopherectomy was done and specimen sent for histopathological examination that showed Mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary. Post operative period remain uneventful.
  1,321 56 -
Study of socio-demographic factors among injured persons in a District of Western Uttar Pradesh – A cross sectional study
M Sharma, A Srivastava, SC Gupta
January-June 2014, 1(1):15-21
Background: Injuries are becoming major public health problem worldwide and since India is also passing through a major socio-demographic, epidemiological and technological transition; injuries are coming up as an emerging health problem. Objectives: To find out prevalence of “Injuries” and role of socio demographic factors related with injuries. Material & Methods: It is a type of observational study in rural & urban area of Agra district. The area to be surveyed was selected by multistage stratified random sampling technique. A recall period of three months for minor injuries & one year for major injuries or deaths due to injury was used. A total of 4 villages covering 2439 population and in urban area 2 mohalla & 2 slums covering 2410 population were surveyed. Data collected was entered on Fox. Pro (vs. 2.6) and analyzed by SPSS (vs. 10). Results: A total of 93 persons in rural and 142 persons in urban had major while 147 peoples in rural and 200 peoples in urban had minor injuries during the recall period. It was found that as the age increases the number of minor injuries increased from 0-35 yrs while decreased after that and maximum major & minor injuries were found in 16-35 yr age group. Regarding socio-economic class maximum injuries both major & minor were found in class IV (lower middle). Conclusions: Considering the high morbidities due to injuries focusing health education efforts based on local epidemiology and behavioral practices is needed.
  1,271 49 -
Cytotherapy for osteonecrosis of hip
Najmul Huda, Asif Iqbal, Ajay Pant, M Julfiqar, Nitin Kumar Agarwal, Pankaj Gupta
January-June 2014, 1(1):36-38
Osteonecrosis of hip is a pathological condition that leads to collapse of the femoral head, & the need for total hip replacement (THR). Research has shown that at the cellular level there is decrease in osteoblastic activity & the local mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) population that leads to osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Cellular therapy could thus be used to improve the local cellular environment. Th is can be achieved by implanting bone marrow, containing osteogenic precursors into the necrotic lesion of the femoral head.
  1,071 60 -
Review of various indicators for assessment of zinc requirement and effectiveness
Manisha Naithani, Jyoti Bharadwaj, Anshuman Darbari
January-June 2014, 1(1):32-35
Zinc (Zn) has been shown to be an essential micronutrient for all organisms including plants, animals and human beings. Deprivation of zinc arrests growth and development and produces multiple system dysfunctions in all these organisms. Because of the involvement of this micronutrient in so many core areas of metabolism, it is common that the features of zinc deficiency in humans are nonspecific with a wide range including growth retardation, alopecia, diarrhea, delayed sexual maturation and impotence, eye and skin lesions and even impaired appetite. Clinical features and laboratory criteria are not always consistent. This inconsistency poses a major difficulty in the search to reliable yet sensitive clinical or functional indicator of zinc status for validation. Further, it has become clear now that the homeostatic mechanisms fall short of perfection and clinically important features of zinc deficiency can occur with only modest degrees of zinc deficiency. In this review article we try to look critically at the available tests and various indicators for assessment of zinc's level for potential requirement and effectiveness and try to conclude about the efficacy of each.
  1,050 47 -
Pseudotumour cerebri: A side-effect of nalidixic acid
AK Simalti
January-June 2014, 1(1):52-52
  1,048 48 -
Non-invasive diagnosis of H. Pylori infection
TJ Hemnani
January-June 2014, 1(1):53-53
  916 64 -
Trial women: Empower women
SK Jain
January-June 2014, 1(1):1-2
  854 59 -