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Sexology. “So what is it that you actually do?”
BS Laura Anne Milosavljevic
January-June 2015, 2(1):174-176
This article details the principles and practices of the scientific discipline Sexology. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with an in-depth understanding of Sexology as an academia as well as its professional applications. Sexology is defined as the multidisciplinary scientific study of human sexuality, but few individuals know exactly what a Sexologist does. Often the assumption is solely sex therapy as treatment for sexual dysfunctions, however, the field of Sexology is far more expansive with multitudinous diverse specializations. Sexology covers a broad spectrum of theory and practice and Sexologists integrate many methods, concepts and interventions into their work. Through education, research and therapy, human sexual difficulties maybe successfully resolved through the commitment and dedication of Sexologists.
  36,080 223 -
Treatment-emergent dhat syndrome in a young male with Obsessive–Compulsive disorder: An alarm for medication nonadherence
Sujita Kumar Kar
January-June 2019, 6(1):44-45
Dhat syndrome refers to a culture-bound syndrome of Southeast Asia, where patients present with anxiety and depressive and somatic symptoms, which they attribute to semen loss. Common presentation of these patients is the passage of semen-like substance in urine. Retrograde ejaculation may cause spermaturia, and patients with firmly held cultural myths related to sexuality may develop features of Dhat syndrome. Here, a patient with obsessive–compulsive disorder on treatment with fluoxetine developed retrograde ejaculation and subsequently features of Dhat syndrome.
  11,307 252 1
The study of different presentations of breast lumps in radiographic imaging
Shalini Saraswat, Amit Kumar
January-June 2014, 1(1):45-51
Introduction: Breast USG is an established and accurate tool for the primary evaluation of breast lumps and pathology. It also compliments X-ray mammography in further evaluation and characterization of breast masses and thus avoids surgeries in benign breast diseases and pathology. Method: For USG examination of the breast lumps, a linear-array transducer of 5-7 MHz frequency is required with a good resolution machine. Results: We present a pictorial essay on the role of USG in evaluation and characterization of various breast lumps and pathology. Conclusion: Breast sonography considerably improves the visualization and evaluation of lumps in mammographically radiodense breasts and helpful in the characterization of it, either as solid or cystic lesion. It also improves the specificity of X-ray mammography when used as an adjunct to it. It is also helpful in guiding FNAC/biopsy from the breast masses.
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Clinical practice guidance for the use of clomiphene citrate in Male Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
Michael A. S Guth
January-June 2015, 2(1):14-18
Introduction: Inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion in men by testosterone (T) is principally mediated by aromatization to estrogen (E), which inhibits hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Material and Methods: Longitudinal clinical investigation unit-based evaluation of the clinical and biochemical response to E-receptor blockade. Initial monotherapy with 50 mg of clomiphene citrate (CC) daily for a period of 9 months, with diurnal morning peak testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels evaluated at three-month intervals thereafter. The patient then resumed hormone replacement therapy (HRT) using T cream with adjuvant CC therapy. Main Outcome Measures were Baseline and stimulated T and LH levels; effect on sexual function. Result(S): CC therapy resulted in complete normalization of pulsatile gonadotropin secretion, serum T level, and sexual function. Conclusion(S): Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) may result from an acquired defect of enhanced hypothalamic sensitivity to E-mediated negative feedback. Whereas direct T replacement therapy can further suppress endogenous gonadotropin secretion, treating IHH men with gonadotropins can stimulate endogenous T secretion and enhance fertility potential. Reversal of gonadotropin deficiency with CC was found to have a similar biological effect.
  10,234 302 -
Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics: Concepts and applications in nutrition research and practice
Rohin Garg, Nidhi Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar Jain
July-December 2014, 1(2):124-130
Nutrigenomics refers to the application of genomic principles in nutritional research, enables us to formulate associations between specific nutrients and genetic factors, e.g. the way in which food or food ingredients influence gene expression. It aims to identify the genes that influence the risk of diet-related diseases and also helpful to solve the mechanisms that underlie these genetic predispositions. In contrast, nutrigenetics reveals the coordination of genetic makeup of individuals with their responses to various dietary nutrients. It clarifies different responses to same nutrient by different individuals. Interaction of genetic background and diet with regard to development of chronic conditions as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and cancer are discussed in present review. These two branches of nutrition resemble with two sides of a coin, facing towards opposite sides but simultaneously, they are intimately attached with each other. Collective efforts by the scientific community are needed to strictly follow guidelines put forth regarding experimental designs, analysis, and data storage for nutritional research. This strategy will be helpful to generate a sound database useful for clinicians and dietetic practitioners.
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Tarantula cubensis venom (theranekron®) selectively destroys human cancer cells via activating caspase-3-mediated apoptosis
Armin Ghasemi-Dizgah, Babak Nami, Nour Amirmozafari
January-June 2017, 4(1):74-80
Background: Tarantula cubensis venom (Theranekron®) is used as a homeopathic medicine which has shown anti-tumor effects in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to assess effect of Tarantula cubensis venom on apoptotic cell death of human cancer cell lines. Methods: HEK293, MCF7 and HN5 cell lines were used. The cells were treated with different concentrations of alcoholic extract of Tarantula cubensis (Theranekron®) for different periods of time. Cell morphology was studied by light microscopic observation. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and death rate was assessed applying trypan blue staining. Apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation, cleaved caspase-3 protein western blotting and ELISA caspase-3 activity assays. Results: Tarantula cubensis venom ruined cell adhesion, reduced cell proliferation, increased cell death rates and caused DNA fragmentation in human cells. An increased caspase-3 cleavage and hyper-activation of caspase-3 was detected in the cells treated with the venom. Results also showed a significantly higher toxicity and apoptosis levels in cancer cell lines MCF7 and HN5 compared with non-cancerous HEK293 cells. Conclusion: We conclude that Tarantula cubensis venom is selectively toxic for human cancer cells via inducing caspase-3- mediated apoptosis.
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Shame and the modern woman: How slut-shaming hurts you!
Veronica Monet
January-June 2015, 2(1):1-4
  6,550 280 -
Thyroid-stimulating hormone in hypothyroidism – How high is too high?
Ruth Priya Senthiappan, Smitha Bhat, Sudeep Krishna
January-June 2019, 6(1):11-16
Background: The prevalence of hypothyroidism in the developed world is about 4-5% and in India is 10.9%. The goal of treating hypothyroidism is to maintain thyrotropin (TSH) levels within the normal reference range. Studies have shown that even within the normal range of TSH, patients with low normal TSH (LNT) have better outcomes when compared to patients with high normal TSH (HNT). Aims and Objectives: Our study aimed to find whether patients treated at a dose of levothyroxine resulting in an LNT had improved clinical outcomes and biochemical parameters, when compared to those on a levothyroxine dose resulting in an HNT. Materials and Methods: 180 patients with hypothyroidism on treatment, who had a TSH of 0.27-4.2mIU/L and had been on treatment with a stable dose of at least 50 micrograms of levothyroxine for at least 6 months were administered the Thyroid Symptom Questionnaire. TSH was assayed. Blood pressure and BMI were measured. Serum lipids were measured by spectrophotometry. Results: We found that patients with LNT and HNT did not differ with respect to cognitive symptoms , feelings of coldness, lethargy and fatigue. However, patients with LNT had a better lipid profile (mean LDL 132.24 in HNT and 115.39 in LNT p= 0.08) and lower BMI (1.045kg/m 2 lower in LNT compared to HNT) compared to HNT. Conclusion: Treating patients with a dose of thyroxine titrated to achieve LNT might decrease the cardiovascular risk by improving the lipid profile and BMI.
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Simulation in anaesthesia
Sanjeev Kumar Jain, Rohit Kumar Varshney
July-December 2018, 5(2):53-54
  1,838 4,279 -
Prevalence of sickle cell disease among children attending plateau specialist hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Nanbur Stephen, Nanyak Nden, Nanle Joseph Gusen, Patience Ringkat Kumzhi, Bonji Gaknung, Dauda Abimiku Auta, Lydia B Bulndi, Champion Mbursa, Vasantha P Kumari, Nannim Nanvyat
January-June 2018, 5(1):20-23
Background: An estimate of 250,000 children are born annually with sickle cell disease (SCD) worldwide and 75%–85% of the affected children are born in Africa; where mortality rates for those under age 5 years range from 50% to 80%. Objective: The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of SCD among children in Plateau State Specialist Hospital (PSSH), Jos, Nigeria. Methodology: Ethical approval was obtained from the Health Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Secondary data on age, gender, and region from the case notes of infants, children and/or adolescents; who received medical care in PSSH from 2012 to 2014 were used. Data were analyzed using frequency tables and Chi-square statistics. Results: The findings revealed that the prevalence of SCD in PSSH, Jos from 2012 to 2014 was 26.9/1000 population of pediatric patients. There was a gradual increase in the prevalence rate from 25.8/1000 in 2012 to 26.8/1000 in 2013 and 28.1/1000 in 2014. However, the case fatality rate of SCD gradually decreased from 15.4% in 2012 to 11.1% in 2013 and 10.3% in 2014. Chi-square test shows that the prevalence of the disease in relation to sex, age, and residence was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Even though the case fatality rate of the disease decreased, its prevalence increased during the study. Conclusion: Therefore, preventive measure for SCD such as premarital genetic screening and counseling should be emphasized, especially in the southern and central geopolitical zones of Plateau state, where the prevalence was found to be higher.
  5,390 528 3
Effect of aging and lumbar spondylosis on lumbar lordosis
Francis Osita Okpala
January-June 2018, 5(1):14-19
Background: Lumbar lordosis (LL), the anterior convexity of the lumbar spine in the mid-sagittal plane, gives the spine some resilience and helps in protecting it from compressive forces because some of the force is taken by the anterior longitudinal ligaments. In aging and lumbar spondylosis, the intervertebral discs undergo the same degenerative changes though at different rates, and in both, while some authors reported a straightening of LL, others reported no significant change. This morphologic information would hopefully influence therapeutic decision-making, particularly in lumbar spondylosis, which though usually asymptomatic, is a common cause of low back pain. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aging and lumbar spondylosis on LL. Subjects and Methods: Lumbosacral joint angle (LSJA), an angular measure of LL, was retrospectively measured in 252 normal and 329 spondylotic adolescent and adult supine lateral lumbosacral spine archival radiographs, and data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0 (New York, USA). Results: Normal LSJA range was 5°–39°; the mean was 18.7° and showed insignificant variation with gender and aging. Spondylotic range was 5°–40° and the mean (20.8°) differed from the normal mean by about 2°, which probably have inconsequential effect on the lumbar curvature, suggesting that the normal and spondylotic mean values are essentially equal. The spondylotic mean also showed insignificant variation with aging and inconsequential 1° gender difference in favor of females. Conclusion: LL is substantially maintained in aging and lumbar spondylosis.
  5,424 494 -
Female ejaculation - myth or fact?
Veronica Monet
January-June 2016, 3(1):4-5
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A comparative analysis of the baska mask versus I-gel for general anesthesia in surgical patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Usha Kumari Chaudhary, Som Raj Mahajan, Monika Mahajan, Charu Sharma, Mukesh Sharma
July-December 2018, 5(2):69-73
Background and Aims: Baska mask is a newly introduced membranous cuffed supraglottic device whereas I-gel is made up of thermoplastic elastomer, both suitably designed from the anatomical perspective of the airway. Settings and Design: We conducted randomized controlled comparative trial of the Baska mask versus I-gel in a patient undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Subjects and Methods: A total of 100 adult patients in the age group of 20–70 years undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into two groups as follows: (1) Baska mask group and (2) I-gel group. The primary outcome was to compare oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) of Baska mask and I-gel groups. The secondary outcome was the ease of insertion and removal, number of attempts, insertion time, leak fraction, and laryngopharyngeal morbidity. Statistical Analysis Used: Demographic details were compared using the Chi-square and t-tests. Student's t-test for independent variables was used to compare means of data obtained. Results: Mean OLP was significantly higher in Baska mask group than I-gel group at insertion (29.54 ± 1.41 cm H2O vs. 23.16 ± 3.07 cm H2O, P = 0.02) and 30 min after insertion (33.54 ± 1.16 cm H2O vs. 25.97 ± 2.25 cm H2O, P = 0.001). Insertion time was 12.33 ± 2.61 s with Baska mask and 11.31 ± 1.84 s with I-gel (P = 0.02). Insertion was very easy in 58% of patients in Baska mask and 76% of patients in I-gel (P = 0.03). The leak fraction of Baska mask was significantly less than I-gel (3.56 ± 3.6 vs. 7.16 ± 2.45, P = 0.01). Laryngopharyngeal morbidity was comparable in the two groups. Conclusion: Baska mask is more effective in providing greater OLP compared to I-gel without any increase in laryngopharyngeal morbidity.
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Empathy level among the medical students of national defence university of malaysia consuming toronto empathy scale
Mainul Haque, Siti Nur Najihah Binti Lutfi, Nur Syamirah Aishah Binti Othman, Halyna Lugova, Shahidah Leong Binti Abdullah
January-June 2018, 5(1):24-30
Background: Multiple research articles were continuously emphasizing that constructive effects of empathy improve patient care. Medical professional bodies often talk that medical doctors need to be competent in clinical skills and empathetic. There was enormous demand from patients that doctors should be empathetic and motivate listeners. Therefore, medical educators became highly concern about the issue whether their students possess empathetic qualities. The Aim of the Study: To measure the empathy level among the medical students and to perform validation and reliability study of the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among medical students of the Defence University of Malaysia to measure empathy level. The TEQ was utilized to collect data. The data were collected in early second half of 2017. The universal sampling method was adopted, and data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Software. Results: The current study population holds an average level of empathy. Female medical students had statistically significantly (P = 0.001) higher scores than their male friends. There no statistically significant differences observed in the TEQ score between the year of study (P = 0.948) and type of admission (P = 0.065). Conclusion: The current study respondents possess an average level of empathy. Educational intervention can be incorporated to enhance empathy level which sequentially promotes patient care.
  4,433 542 1
Periodontitis and diabetes: A bidirectional, cyclical relationship - A brief review
Rakesh Agarwal, Rashmi Baid
July-December 2017, 4(2):46-49
Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis have been said to have a bidirectional cyclical relationship, with diabetes leading to oral disease, and periodontitis, in turn, exacerbating hyperglycemia. Periodontitis is recognized as the sixth major complication of diabetes, having increased prevalence and severity in patients with diabetes. Early diagnosis of diabetes in patients with periodontitis can lead to the prevention of major morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Therapy for diabetes may also lead to the improvement of periodontitis. In this review, we are presenting the current knowledge of the interplay and interaction between these two entities and the available data regarding treatment of the two entities together.
  4,162 628 1
Heme iron polypeptide (proferrin®-ES) versus iron saccharate complex (ferrosac) for treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy
Ibrahim A Abdelazim, Mohannad Abu-Faza, Assem A. M Elbiaa, Hossam S Othman, Dareen A Alsharif, Walid Farok Elsawah
January-June 2017, 4(1):56-61
Objectives: Anemia is one of the world's leading causes of considerable perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study designed to compare the efficacy and safety of Heme iron polypeptide (Proferrin®-ES) versus iron saccharate complex (Ferrosac) in treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. Methods: Two hundred and sixty (260) pregnant women with hemoglobin level below 10 gm/dl due to iron deficiency anemia were included in this study and randomized to receive either; intravenous Iron Saccharate (IV group) or oral Proferrin®-ES (PO group) for correction of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. Treatment efficacy checked by comparing pre-treatment values of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and reticulocytes count by the 3-months` post-treatment values. Results: The 3-months` post-treatment hemoglobin level increased compared to the pre-treatment level without any significant difference between the two studied groups (from 8.5 ± 3.5 to 11.3 ± 1.3 gm/dl in PO group and from 8.7 ± 2.5 to 11.7 ± 0.9 gm/dl in IV group). In addition; the 3-months` post-treatment ferritin level, increased compared to the pre-treatment level without any significant difference between the two studied groups (from 19.4 ± 4.9 to 118.8 ± 7.1 ug/l in PO group and from 15.3 ± 5.6 to 122.3 ± 6.4 ug/l in IV group). 1.6% (2/124) of the studied women developed gastrointestinal intolerance and upset with oral Proferrin®-ES (insignificant difference and excluded from the study) and no other side effects recorded with oral Proferrin®-ES. Conclusion: HIP (Proferrin®-ES) is an effective, safe, well tolerable oral iron preparation as well as intravenous iron saccharate complex for treatment of iron deficiency during pregnancy; it increases the hemoglobin and replaces the depleted iron store.
  4,088 359 3
Effectiveness of Benson's relaxation therapy on reduction of stress among primigravid mothers
Simi Paramban, Sireesha Bala, J Krishna Sowmya, M V. Raghavendra Rao, Praveen Kottath Veetil
July-December 2016, 3(2):133-140
Objectives: The study attempt to assess the effectiveness of Benson's relaxation therapy on reduction of stress among primigravid mothers attending the outpatient department in a selected hospital at Kannur, with the objectives of evaluating the stress among the primigravid mothers before and after the Benson's relaxation therapy and to associate the level of stress with selected demographic variables. Methods: A total of 30 primigravid mothers after third month of gestation were selected for the study. The information regarding background data were collected from the primigravid mothers by self-administered rating scale and the level of hemoglobin status was noted from the health records. Selected primigravid mothers were given pretest questionnaire and Benson's relaxation therapy was administered to all group members for 20 minutes and instructed to continue this for a period of 15 days. Post-test using rating scale was conducted 15 days after the administration of Benson's relaxation therapy. Result: The result of the study shows that the post-test mean stress score was less than the pre-test mean stress score. The obtained mean difference between the pre-test and post-test regarding stress score was statistically significant. Hence research hypothesis “there will be a significant difference in the stress scores before and after Benson's relaxation therapy among the primigravid mothers” has been retained. Conclusions: It was inferred that primigravid mothers who practiced Benson's relaxation therapy had significant decrease in post-test stress score. Also there was significant association with the level of stress and some demographic variables.
  4,103 291 -
Autologous stem cells therapy, The first baby of idiopathic premature ovarian failure
M Edessy, Hala N Hosni, Y Shady, Y Waf, S Bakr, M Kamel
January-June 2016, 3(1):19-23
Introduction: Stem cells (sc) are the foundation cells for every organ, tissue and cell in the body. They are self sustaining and can replicate themselves for long periods of time. Stem cells can differentiate into different types of cells. Women below the age of forty and showing ovarian function loss are defined to have premature ovarian failure (POF). It is associated with sex steroid deficiency, amenorrhea, infertility, and elevated serum gonadotropins. Aim: To evaluate the therapeutic potential of autologous Mesenchymal sc (MSC) transplantation in women suffering from POF. Out of 112 high risk patients for POF(cases with amenorrhoea befor the age of forty), diagnosis was confirmed in10 cases. The ten POF patients were scheduled for MSC transplantation at Al- Azhar University Hospitals. MSC preparation from the bone marrow of the iliac crest was laparoscopically injected into the ovaries. Endometrial fractional biopsy was histopathologicaly (HP) and Immunohistochemically (IH) stained and evaluated according to Edessy stem cells score (ESS). Ovarian reserve was evaluated according to Edessy ovarian reserve score (EORS). Results: Showed that after transplantation two cases (20%) (ESS = 5 and 6) resumed menstruation after 3 months, one of them (10%) (Case no 5) (ESS = 6) got pregnancy after 11 months and delivered a healthy full term baby (Zeinab).Ten months after transplantation EORS of patient who developed pregnancy (case no 6) was found to be 7 after being 0 before therapy. EORS of the other menstruating case (case no 10) was 5 after being 0. The 2 menstruating cases showed focal secretory changes after being atrophic endometrium in case 5 and distorted proliferative endometrium in case 10. Conclusion: Stem cell transplantation is a good procedure and regarded as a real and hope to get healthy pregnancy and baby for cases of POF. It showed good clinical, HP and IH outcome.
  3,767 535 18
Structure based virtual screening, docking and molecular dynamic simulation studies to identify potent mdm2-p53 inhibitors: Future implications for cancer therapy
B Vijay Raj, MV Raghavendra Rao, Yogesh Acharya
January-June 2017, 4(1):11-21
Objective: To identify the p53 binding pocket as well as active residues in mdm2 protein, and search for similar (or) better compounds to inhibit mdm2-p53 interactions in comparison to FDA approved drug (Nutlin) by ligand and structure based virtual screening methods, docking, and molecular dynamic simulation studies. Methods: A structure and ligand based virtual screening for mdm2 protein; targeting the key residues involved in their active binding of p53 peptide was conducted after obtaining structurally suitable compounds similar to Nutlin from ZINC database. These compounds are virtually screened onto the mdm2 protein targeting its active binding site where p53 binds. The best compound with highest binding affinity was taken up for further analysis using molecular dynamic simulations for further validating the docking studies and to reveal interactions during the conformational changes Results: We discovered several compounds that are potentially able to block the interaction between active residues of mdm2 and p53 complex, suggesting their capability to act as anti-cancer agents. As proven by our structure based virtual screening studies coupled with semi-flexible and flexible docking studies, compound ZINC59256947 was found to be the strongest inhibitors for mdm2 protein amongst all of those isolates from ZINC database. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, a simple, selective and reliable inhibition assay can be performed to search for novel inhibitors of p53-mdm2 interaction. Therefore this study provides a rationalization to the ability of a ZINC59256947, an isolate from ZINC database with strong binding affinity towards mdm2 protein, for future implications as anti-cancer agent.
  3,386 644 2
Introduction of module on informed consent training for interns during compulsory surgery rotation
Rajneesh Kumar, Tania Moudgil, Rajiv Arora, Ankita Attri, Sahil Singh
January-June 2020, 7(1):19-30
Background: The use of consent in patient care is a critical skill it is as essential as any other basic standard on which surgical exercise relies. In the present study, an effort was made to formulate a module for training interns on this skill. Materials and Methods: After taking permission from IEC, 140 interns were enrolled for the study. After needs assessment, a module for training the interns for taking informed consent in all scenarios was prepared and validated. Interns were assessed using directly observed procedural skill (DOPS). Feedback was taken from interns and faculty on training through this module at the end of their posting. Results: A total of 140 interns undertook 3 DOPS each and all the interns performed: nonsatisfactory in DOPS 1 (below 4 in each subcompetency), satisfactorily in DOPS 2 (4–6 in each subcompetency), and satisfactorily in DOPS 3 (6–8). Comparison of DOPS 1, 2, and 3 done was done using repeated measure ANOVA and P value was highly statistically significant (P = 0.000). Comparison of progression of scores showed statistically significant P value (P = 0.000). Conclusion: DOPSs is an effective and feasible assessment tool for assessing interns for taking informed consent.
  3,788 145 -
Premarital sexual relationships: Contraceptive knowledge and practice among iranian youths
Fariba Taleghani, Effat Al Sadat Merghati Khoie, Mahnaz Noroozi, Mahgol Tavakoli, Ali Gholami
July-December 2017, 4(2):41-45
Objective: The youths' sexual behaviors are counted as the main priorities of the public health due to the high prevalence of unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions, and sexually transmitted infections. This research was carried out to explain the youths' contraceptive knowledge and practice in premarital sexual relationships. Methods: This qualitative research was carried out on 30 single boys and girls aged 18–24, living in Isfahan, Iran, who had already started sexual activities. Data collection was done with semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by using conventional content analysis. Results: Two main categories were extracted including inadequate awareness regarding contraception (with subcategories “unreliable information sources” and “gender inequality in familiarity with contraceptive methods”) and inappropriate contraceptive practice (with sub-categories “use of unreliable contraceptive methods” and “gender inequality in applying contraceptive methods”). Conclusion: Sexual health education programs should equip the youths with adequate knowledge on contraception and use of reliable contraceptive methods. Furthermore, attempts should be made along with tackling gender inequality is very significant for youths' sexual and reproductive health security.
  3,723 196 -
Bedroom design orientation and sleep electroencephalography signals
Amin Hekmatmanesh, Maryam Banaei, Khosro Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Arezu Najafi
January-June 2019, 6(1):33-37
Background: Orientation is a significant factor in architectural design that may affect well-being. Body direction does not change during sleeping, and sleeping is sensitive and affected by environmental factors. Aims: This neuroarchitecture study aimed to assess the effects of bed orientation on sleep quality to enhance bedroom design. Materials and Methods: To do so, the effects of earth's electromagnetic field (EMF) on sleep electroencephalography (EEG) signals were evaluated using signal processing techniques. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 21 healthy volunteer participants slept for two consecutive naps, at two rooms with identical interior design and different bed orientations, toward and against earth's EMF in a sleep clinic. Statistical Analysis: In this experiment, discrete wavelet transform extracted five subfrequencies of EEG data as delta, theta, alpha, beta1, and beta2. In addition, the energy signals were computed by measurement of wave frequencies. The mean total sleep time was 1.63 h in North–South (N-S) earth's EMF orientation and 1.38 h in the other direction. Results: t-test results showed significant changes in delta, theta, and alpha frequencies in terms of bed orientation. There was a significant result in the alpha energy ratio over the whole signal energy. Furthermore, there were increases in the average energy of delta, theta, and alpha bands in N-S versus East–West (E-W) bed directions. Conclusions: This study indicated that sleep in N-S direction could be more beneficial than E-W and the sleep EEG signals can be sensitive to earth's EMF. The results show the importance of considering orientation in bedroom design and its benefits on inhabitants' well-being.
  3,410 259 1
A study of knowledge and attitude of health care providers working at tertiary care hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan (having HIV/AIDS treatment facility) towards HIV/AIDS
Tahira Hafeez, Syed Hunain Riaz, Irtza Ali, Naila Irum
January-June 2017, 4(1):124-131
A very few health care providers look after HIV/AIDS people because of their poor knowledge and either their lack of positive attitude or usually both. The rationale of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers (tertiary care hospitals in Lahore, having HIV/AIDS Treatment Facility) towards patients with HIV/AIDS. In this cross sectional study, a random sample of 180 healthcare providers was assessed for their knowledge and attitudes. In the questionnaire of knowledge, items were measured in the form of dichotomous scale. Whereas in the five domains of attitudes, items were measured as a five-point likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Results were discussed in the outlook of two variables which showed that the presence of negative attitude and lack of awareness increase the level of stigma and discrimination. HIV in our country needs positive attitude of rendering care and effective control measures by creating awareness in the community. The study reinforced the need for an ongoing education focused on experiential learning, and professional socialization.
  3,374 290 -
Emotional quotient or intelligence quotient? Why not both?
Sanjeev Kumar Jain, Sanya Jain, Sonika Sharma, Nidhi Sharma
January-June 2018, 5(1):1-1
  2,289 1,360 -
Clinical profile and maternal depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with intellectual disability: A study from outpatient child psychiatry
Bilal Ahmad Bhat, Shabir Ahmad Dar, Wasim Qadir, Mudassir Hassan Pandith
July-December 2019, 6(2):68-73
Background: With prevalence between 1% and 3%, intellectual disability (ID) not only affects the children and adolescents with this disability but also the caregivers, particularly the mothers. Aims: The aim was to study the clinical profile of children and adolescents with ID along with the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in their mothers. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Outpatient child psychiatry clinic. Methodology: Children and adolescents diagnosed with ID by a psychiatrist and clinical psychologist where subjected to a semi-structured questionnaire to record the sociodemographic status, antenatal history, perinatal history, and developmental history, presenting complaints, current behavioral problems, and medical history. Psychiatric comorbidity in the study participants and depression and anxiety disorders in their mothers was also assessed. Results: With the mean age of 8.68 years ± 2.63, majority (81.2%) belonged to the age group of 6–12 years with predominance of boys (60%). Antenatal factors were present in about 18%, whereas perinatal factors were present in about 48%. Delayed developmental history was present in 75%. Psychiatric comorbidity was present in about 32%, whereas current behavioral problems were present in about 47%. Majority (about 71%) had mild ID. Maternal depression and anxiety disorders were present in about 70%. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Conclusion: High rates of antenatal and perinatal factors with a history of developmental delay in a significant number of children and adolescents with ID were found. Mild ID predominated. Behavioral problems, psychiatric comorbidity, and medical comorbidity were frequently observed. Maternal depression and anxiety were also very high.
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