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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 147-152

Histomorphological analysis of gestational trophoblastic disease spectrum with clinicopathological correlation at a teaching hospital

1 Department of Pathology, JJMMC, Davangere, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Pathology, KIMS, Hubli, Karnataka, India
3 Department of General Medicine, SSIMS and RC, Davangere, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. B M Soumya
Department of Pathology, JJMMC, Davangere, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/amit.amit_84_22

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Introduction: Clinically, all trophoblastic lesions are frequently combined under a broad spectrum of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTDs) without the use of specific pathological terms. However, studies now demonstrate that various forms of GTDs demonstrate differences in etiology, histogenesis, morphology, and clinical behavior. Thus, the need for diagnostic histopathology of these lesions to distinguish gestational trophoblastic neoplasms from nonneoplastic lesions and molar pregnancies and also for early anticipation for early anticipation, risk category stratification, prognostication, management, and prediction of persistent GTD. Our study aimed to study the histomorphological patterns of various types of GTD with light microscopy and the pattern of occurrence of GTDs in relation to age, parity, and gestation. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of pathology, from January 2020 to April 2022. All GTDs confirmed by histopathological examination by hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides were included. Results: The spectrum of GTDs found in this study was seventy cases of hydatidiform mole (92.10%), three cases of exaggerated placental site (EPS) reaction (3.94%), and two cases of choriocarcinoma (2.63%) and one case (1.31%) of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT). The most common presenting symptom was vaginal bleeding (93.42%). Conclusion: Hydatidiform mole forms the most common type of GTD with an incidence of complete moles more than partial moles. Histomorphological examination and analysis are helpful for confirmatory diagnosis. The most common clinical presentation of GTD was vaginal bleeding followed by amenorrhea. Emphasis on detailed descriptive morphological assessment can help in the histological distinction of benign lesions such as EPS reaction and placental site nodule and avert such cases from being erroneously diagnosed as neoplastic. The Ki-67 proliferation index helped in distinguishing the EPS reaction from neoplastic lesions such as PSTT which requires surgical intervention and chemotherapy.

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