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Table of Contents
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 2-3

Potential of clinical pharmacology in developing rational prescribing

Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defense University of , Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Date of Web Publication7-Dec-2017

Correspondence Address:
Mainul Haque
Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (National Defence University of Malaysia), Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ami.ami_41_17

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How to cite this article:
Haque M. Potential of clinical pharmacology in developing rational prescribing. Acta Med Int 2017;4:2-3

How to cite this URL:
Haque M. Potential of clinical pharmacology in developing rational prescribing. Acta Med Int [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Sep 28];4:2-3. Available from: https://www.actamedicainternational.com/text.asp?2017/4/2/2/217263

Irrational prescribing, poly-pharmacy and prescribing errors are public health problems which exist both in developing and developed countries.[1],[2] Virtually, every single working physician prescribes medicines, and most of them write a plethora of prescriptions every day.[3] The changes in clinical medicine, over the last couple of decades, generate new issues and challenges to medical schools [4],[5] for training medical doctors about how to select right and prescribe medicines rationally to ensure safe and efficient treatment.[3] Prescribing medicines is the supreme instrument utilized by medical doctors to cure illness, relieve symptoms, and prevent future ailments.[6],[7] Prescribing medicines is also a composite and thought-provoking task that requires diagnostic skills, knowledge of common medicines, an understanding of the principles of clinical pharmacology, communication skills, and the ability to judge the potential benefits and risks of medication.[6],[8],[9] Pharmacology furnishes the scientific basis of therapeutics, i.e., the scientific foundation for safe and rational prescribing of drugs.[10] One of the essential constituents of pharmacology is clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT).[11] The main objective of teaching CPT is to impart knowledge, proficiency, and attitudes so that a medical doctor can evaluate the potential benefits and risks of prescribing medicines along with their cost-effectiveness.[12] Pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, pharmacology, and therapeutics denote the same subject that provides the knowledge for rational and prudent use of medicine.[13] Prescribing drugs safely and effectively is an essential expertise that medical students must acquire before graduation, since after graduation, they will prescribe drugs daily, with marginal, administrative control and supervision.[14] Multiple studies reported that medical students are not adequately prepared to prescribe rationally and independently.[2],[15],[16],[17] It has also been recommended that medical doctors may be exposed to irrational prescribing if not effectively trained in rational pharmacotherapy.[18] Clinical pharmacologists play a commanding role in the development of the skills of rational prescribing of medicines by teaching principles of pharmacotherapy among the undergraduate medical students.[19] Teaching principles of pharmacotherapy to develop the indispensable skills of safe and rational prescription writing in undergraduate medical curriculum based on the WHO Teacher's Guide to Good Prescribing could be the best solution.[20],[21]

  References Top

Hogerzeil HV. Promoting rational prescribing: An international perspective. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995;39:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
Aronson JK. A prescription for better prescribing. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006;61:487-91.  Back to cited text no. 2
Braunwald E. Foreward. In: Golan DE, editor. Principles of Pharmacology. Philadelphia, US: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005. p. vii.  Back to cited text no. 3
Perrillo R. Challenges and opportunities for medical education and clinical research in a changing healthcare environment. Ochsner J 2001;3:16-21.  Back to cited text no. 4
Flockhart DA, Usdin Yasuda S, Pezzullo JC, Knollmann BC. Teaching rational prescribing: A new clinical pharmacology curriculum for medical schools. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2002;366:33-43.  Back to cited text no. 5
Maxwell S. Rational prescribing: The principles of drug selection. Clin Med (Lond) 2009;9:481-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
Pollock M, Bazaldua OV, Dobbie AE. Appropriate prescribing of medications: An eight-step approach. Am Fam Physician 2007;75:231-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
Likic R, Maxwell SR. Prevention of medication errors: Teaching and training. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009;67:656-61.  Back to cited text no. 8
Maxwell S, Mucklow J. E-learning initiatives to support prescribing. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2012;74:621-31.  Back to cited text no. 9
Gwee MC. Teaching of medical pharmacology: The need to nurture the early development of desired attitudes for safe and rational drug prescribing. Med Teach 2009;31:847-54.  Back to cited text no. 10
Naik M, Nerurkar R, Phatak A, Panchal S, Paunikar A. A questionnaire-based study to assess rational prescribing practice among interns. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol 2015;5:323-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
Gitanjali B, Shashindran CH. Curriculum in clinical pharmacology for medical undergraduates of India. Indian J Pharmacol 2006;38 Suppl 2:S108-14.  Back to cited text no. 12
Mukhopadhyay K. Relevance of pharmacology education in present context. J Indian Med Assoc 2005;103:40.  Back to cited text no. 13
Brinkman DJ, Tichelaar J, Okorie M, Bissell L, Christiaens T, Likic R, et al. Pharmacology and therapeutics education in the European Union needs harmonization and modernization: A Cross-sectional survey among 185 medical schools in 27 countries. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2017;102:815-22.  Back to cited text no. 14
Miles S, Kellett J, Leinster SJ. Medical graduates' preparedness to practice: A comparison of undergraduate medical school training. BMC Med Educ 2017;17:33.  Back to cited text no. 15
Ferguson GR, Bacila IA, Swamy M. Does current provision of undergraduate education prepare UK medical students in ENT? A systematic literature review. BMJ Open 2016;6:e010054.  Back to cited text no. 16
Rothwell C, Burford B, Morrison J, Morrow G, Allen M, Davies C, et al. Junior doctors prescribing: Enhancing their learning in practice. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2012;73:194-202.  Back to cited text no. 17
Akici A, Gören MZ, Aypak C, Terzioǧlu B, Oktay S. Prescription audit adjunct to rational pharmacotherapy education improves prescribing skills of medical students. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2005;61:643-50.  Back to cited text no. 18
Richir MC, Tichelaar J, Geijteman EC, de Vries TP. Teaching clinical pharmacology and therapeutics with an emphasis on the therapeutic reasoning of undergraduate medical students. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2008;64:217-24.  Back to cited text no. 19
Hogerzeil HV, Barnes KI, Henning RH, Kocabasoglu YE, Moller H, Smith AJ, et al. Teacher's Guide to Good Prescribing. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy; 2001. Available from: http://www.apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s15940e/s15940e.pdf. [Last accessed on 2017 Sep 11].  Back to cited text no. 20
Ignacio D, Sealy P, Clement Y. Confidence in prescription writing among junior physicians in Trinidad and Tobago. West Indian Med J 2015;64:407-12.  Back to cited text no. 21

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