Acta Medica International

: 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11--12

I am the Best-Am I?

Sanjeev Kumar Jain1, Nidhi Sharma2, Rohin Garg3,  
1 Chief Editor, Acta Medica International
2 Journal Administrator, Acta Medica International
3 Academic Editor Acta Medica International

Correspondence Address:

How to cite this article:
Jain SK, Sharma N, Garg R. I am the Best-Am I?.Acta Med Int 2016;3:11-12

How to cite this URL:
Jain SK, Sharma N, Garg R. I am the Best-Am I?. Acta Med Int [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Aug 19 ];3:11-12
Available from:

Full Text


Available literature of review confirms, Chromosome Segregation Errors (CSE)as the prime cause of pregnancy loss in aging females.[1] Amongst other well known potential causes of pregnancy loss in advanced age (35 yr onwards) Bubl(budding uninhibited by benzimidazole), is proved to be the leading cause. Most common chromosomal segregation error is aneuploidy, during Oogenesis[2] in advancing maternal age.[3] Disturbed functioning of (Spindle Assembly Checkpoint) SAC leads to aneuploidy.[4] The SAC restricts the abnormal drifting of sister chromatids and maintains accurate chromosomal segregation.[5] Bub1 is the very important constituent of the (SAC). The (Bub1) is required for the efficient kinetochore localization. Depletion or absence of Bub1 leads to loss of chromatid cohesion.[6],[7]

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), still suffers from low implantation rates. Failure rate of IVF is approximately 62-65%.[8] To access the implantation rate, (Sakkas and Gardner, 2005),[9] studied the role of various metabolic parameters in this context. Pyruvate present in embryonic culture media has been positively correlated with embryonic viability, but this view was terminated by (Biggers et al.1967[10] Hardy et al.1989,[11] Turner et al.1994,[12] and Gardner et al. 2001.[13]

In late nineties cytoplasmic transfer was tried,which may culminate into delivery of viable and healthy babies. (Cohen et al., 1997, 1998; Huang et al., 1999)[14],[15]

Somatic cell nuclear transfer(SCNT) was tried (Wilmut, 2002; Cibelli, 2007),[16],[17] but lost its validity due to placental dysfunctions., and other associated problems. (Bourc'his et al., 2001; Rideout et al).[18],[19]

Glucose uptake in embryonic culture media makes embryo's implantation as a potential marker, which yields better results[20],[21] but for the contradiction made by.[22],[23] Brison et al. (2004)[24] correlated increased pregnancy rates with increased asparagines levels and Seli et al. (2008)[25] with higher glutamate levels.

All above described metabolic technology being not validated on a practical platform due to cost and time effectiveness, so could not make its way for better perspectives.

Many studies are now conducted at cell organelle level which would benefit the aging embryo. These studies use Mitochandrial activators, which act as energy boosters and help in both in vivo and in vitro. (Bentov et al., 2010[26] Van Blerkom) 2011.[27]

Most recent study conducted by (Chung etal 2005)[28] used microwells, and observed that how rapidly a fertilized ovum changes in to 4-8 cell stage. This shows the competence of the embryo. By this technique number of transfer of embryos will be minimized and most competent embryo will be used for establishment of pregnancy avoiding chances of multiple implantation and its outcome.


1Hassold T, Hall H, Hunt P. The origin of human aneuploidy: Where we have been,where we are going. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16(2):203–208.
2Vogt E, Kirsch-Volders M, Parry J, Eichenlaub-Ritter U. Spindle formation, chromosome segregation and the spindle checkpoint in mammalian oocytes and susceptibility to meiotic error. Mutat Res.2008; 651:14–29.
3Hassold T, Hunt P. To err (meiotically) is human: The genesis of human aneuploidy. Nat Rev Genet.2001; 2:280–291.
4Niault T, et al. Changing Mad2 levels affects chromosome segregation and spindle assembly checkpoint control in female mouse meiosis I. PLoS ONE.2007; 2(11):e1165.
5Yu H. Regulation of APC-Cdc20 by the spindle checkpoint. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2002; 14:706–714.
6Tang Z, Sun Y, Harley SE, Zou H, Yu H. Human Bub1 protects centromeric sister-chromatid cohesion through Shugoshin during mitosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101:18012–18017.
7Kitajima TS, Hauf S, Ohsugi M, Yamamoto T, Watanabe Y. Human Bub1 defines the persistent cohesion site along the mitotic chromosome by affecting Shugoshin localization. Curr Biol. 2005;15:353–359.
8SART. Assisted reproductive technology success rates. National summary and fertility clinic reports. Centers for disease control, USA, 2006.
9Sakkas D, Gardner DK. Noninvasive methods to assess embryo quality. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2005;17:283–288.
10Biggers JD, Whittingham DG, Donahue RP. The pattern of energy metabolism in the mouse oocyte and zygote. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1967;58:560–567.
11Hardy K, Hooper MAK, Handyside AH, Rutherford AJ, Winston RML, Leese HJ. Non-invasive measurement of glucose and pyruvate uptake by individual human oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Hum Reprod. 1989;4:188–191.
12Turner K, Martin KL, Woodward BJ, Lenton EA, Leese HJ. Comparison of pyruvate uptake by embryos derived from conception and non-conception natural cycles. Hum Reprod. 1994; 2362–2366.
13Gardner DK, Lane M, Stevens J, Schoolcraft WB. Noninvasive assessment of human embryo nutrient consumption as a measure of developmental potential. Fertil Steril 2001;76:1175–1180.
14Cohen J, Scott R, Schimmel T, Levron J, Willadsen S. Birth of infant after transfer of anucleate donor oocyte cytoplasm into recipient eggs. Lancet, 1997;350:186–187.
15Huang CC, Cheng TC, Chang HH, Chang CC, Chen CI, Liu J, Lee MS. Birth after the injection of sperm and the cytoplasm of tripronucleate zygotes into metaphase II oocytes in patients with repeated implantation failure after assisted fertilization procedures. Fertil Steril.1999;72:702–706.
16Wilmut I. Cloning and stem cells. Cloning Stem Cells. 2002;4:103–104.
17Cibelli J. Development. Is therapeutic cloning dead? Science. 2007;318:1879–1880.
18Bourc'shis D, Le Bourhis D, Patin D, Niveleau A, Comizzoli P, Renarde JP, Viegas-Pequignot E. Delayed and incomplete reprogramming of chromosome methylation patterns in bovine cloned embryos. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1542–1546.
19Rideout WM 3rd, Eggan K, Jaenisch R. Nuclear cloning and epigenetic reprogramming of the genome. Science. 2001;293:1093–1098.
20Devreker F. Uptake and release of metabolites in human preimplantation embryos. In: Cohen J, Elder K (eds). Human Preimplantation Embryo Selection. London, UK: Taylor and Francis. 2007; 325–336.
21Gardner DK, Leese HJ. Assessment of embryo viability prior to transfer by the noninvasive measurement of glucose uptake. J Exp Zool. 1987;242:103–105.
22Hardy K, Hooper MAK, Handyside AH, Rutherford AJ, Winston RML, Leese HJ. Non-invasive measurement of glucose and pyruvate uptake by individual human oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Hum Reprod. 1989;4:188–191.
23Lane M, Gardner D. Amino acids and vitamins prevent culture-induced metabolic perturbations and associated loss of viability of mouse blastocysts. Hum Reprod. 1998;13:991–997.
24Brison DR, Houghton FD, Falconer D, Roberts SA, Hawkhead J, Humpherson PG,Lieberman BA, Leese HJ. Identification of viable embryos in IVF by non-invasive measurement of amino acid trunover. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:2319–2324.
25Seli E, Botros L, Sakkas D, Burns DH. Non-invasive metabolomic profiling of embryo culture media using proton NMR correlates with reproductive Metabolomic profiling in IVF687 potential of embryos in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2183–2189.
26Bentov Y, Esfandiari N, Burstein E, Casper RF. The use of mitochondrial nutrients to improve the outcome of infertility treatment in older patients. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:272–275. [PubMed].
27Van Blerkom J. Mitochondrial function in the human oocyte and embryo and their role in developmental competence. Mitochondrion. 2011;11:797–813. [PubMed].
28Yu-Hsiang Chung, Yi-Hsing Hsiao, Wei-Lun Kao, Chia-Hsien Hsu, Da-Jeng Yao, and Chihchen Chen. Microwells support highresolution time-lapse imaging and development of preimplanted mouse embryos. Biomicrofluidics. 2015; DOI: 10.1063/1.4918642.