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Clinical profile and maternal depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with intellectual disability: A Study from Outpatient Child Psychiatry

1 Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Bilal Ahmad Bhat,
Departments of Psychiatry, Government Medical College, Srinagar - 190 003, Jammu and Kashmir
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ami.ami_25_19

Background: With prevalence between 1% and 3%, intellectual disability (ID) not only affects the children and adolescents with this disability but also the caregivers, particularly the mothers. Aims: The aim was to study the clinical profile of children and adolescents with ID along with the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in their mothers. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Outpatient child psychiatry clinic. Methodology: Children and adolescents diagnosed with ID by a psychiatrist and clinical psychologist where subjected to a semi-structured questionnaire to record the sociodemographic status, antenatal history, perinatal history, and developmental history, presenting complaints, current behavioral problems, and medical history. Psychiatric comorbidity in the study participants and depression and anxiety disorders in their mothers was also assessed. Results: With the mean age of 8.68 years ± 2.63, majority (81.2%) belonged to the age group of 6–12 years with predominance of boys (60%). Antenatal factors were present in about 18%, whereas perinatal factors were present in about 48%. Delayed developmental history was present in 75%. Psychiatric comorbidity was present in about 32%, whereas current behavioral problems were present in about 47%. Majority (about 71%) had mild ID. Maternal depression and anxiety disorders were present in about 70%. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Conclusion: High rates of antenatal and perinatal factors with a history of developmental delay in a significant number of children and adolescents with ID were found. Mild ID predominated. Behavioral problems, psychiatric comorbidity, and medical comorbidity were frequently observed. Maternal depression and anxiety were also very high.

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