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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 34-40

A study of snakebite envenomation cases admitted to egyptian national poisoning center


National Center for Clinical and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Sayed M Badawy
National Center for Clinical and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ami.ami_48_17

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Introduction: Snakebite is an Egyptian health problem since ancient Egypt. Meanwhile, there is still no controlled geographical and medical studies on locally prevalent snake family intoxication. Aim and Methods: The present study aimed to investigate local snakebites presentations, management, prognosis, and the effect of the polyvalent antivenom, locally produced by the Holding Company for Biological Products and Vaccines (VACSERA) through the year 2015. Results: A total of 87 snakebites caused by venomous and nonvenomous species were recorded. Most cases were middle-aged males. Most cases presented in summer and in the evening time. Two major groups of venomous Egyptian snakes were identified, Viperidae and Elapidae species, based on history, characteristic symptoms, and laboratory findings. Most snakebites (56 cases) were reported to be nonvenomous bites (64.4%). Twenty-one cases (24.1%) of snakebites were reported to be venomous bites by Elapidae snakes and 10 cases (11.5%) were reported to be venomous bites by Viperidae snakes. Antivenom was administered before referral to 37 (42.5%) of cases, and 19 only of them were victims of venomous snakes. Thirty-six (41.3%) patients received antivenom during admission including all cases of the venomous bites and 8.9% of nonvenomous bites' cases. Conclusion: Patients who had moderate or severe symptoms were effectively treated with VACSERA's polyvalent antivenom, with doses related to the severity grading and snake species identification. Additional antivenom doses were repeated on the bases of the clinical condition. Many snakebite victims referred from primary health centers received inadequate or nonnecessary doses of antivenom. No cases of anaphylaxis were recorded. There were no mortalities with current National Center for Clinical and Environmental Toxicology's protocol of treatment.


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