|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 96-100
Relationship between cosmetic surgery and psychological variables
Reyhaneh souri1, Mona Porjorat2
1 Clinical psychologist at Educational System, Tehran, Iran
2 Clinical psychologist and Family Therapist, Tehran, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||6-Jul-2017|
Clinical psychologist at Educational system and Family Therapist
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Objective: The main aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between cosmetic surgery and psychological variables such as self-esteem and marital satisfaction along with its components in Iran. Methods: The study had an ex-post facto, pre-post-test design. Using purposive sampling method, a total of 30 married women, who had referred for cosmetic surgery to clinics in Tehran, were incorporated during a six-month period. Data collection instruments included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The obtained data were analyzed using inferential statistics (analysis of variance for repeated measures, related sample test, and Pearson correlation coefficient). Results: According to the results of this study, some components of marital satisfaction (such as marital relations, financial management, leisure, and sex) and self-esteem of women before and after cosmetic surgery is statistically significant also there is a relationship betwean marital satisfaction and self-esteem, as self-esteem increases, marital satisfaction rises too. Conclusion: Performance of such surgeries always presents risks, and advice should be sought before making any decision about the surgery.
Keywords: Married women, Cosmetic surgery, psychological variables, Marital satisfaction, Self-esteem demands of their spouses
|How to cite this article:|
souri R, Porjorat M. Relationship between cosmetic surgery and psychological variables. Acta Med Int 2017;4:96-100
| Introduction|| |
Fed by excessive emphasis on beauty and images presented in the press, the cinema, and other media, concern for appearance has taken prominence to an extreme extent, especially among women. Applications for surgery and cosmetic procedures have increased sharply in recent years so that every year millions of people volunteer for cosmetic surgeries. The literature indicates that in 2009 cosmetic surgeries were performed in the United States irrespective of income levels or the need for surgery. The incidence rate is increased as much as 77% from 2000 to 2009 (American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 2010). In 2014, about 15.6 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the United States, which shows a 3 percent increase compared to the year 2013 (American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 2015).
Similarly, there has been an increasing tendency to cosmetic surgery in Iran in recent years. Nonetheless, discussions in this regard are mainly based on estimations and minimal statistics. However, among the different surgeries bordering on cosmetic surgery, e.g., eyelid drooping, facial contouring, neck and face lift, hair transplantation, liposuction, breast and nose implants, Iran was ranked first in (2010) at least in cosmetic surgery of the nose.
According to previous research, women hold a bigger share than men in this regard, which represents the deeply genderized nature of cosmetic surgery. Trends as such motivated this research endeavor to enquire into the status of matrimonial satisfaction and self-esteem as two psychological factors affected by these surgeries.
Today, the body has gained an important role in the formation of social relationships among people, and people try to present, in appearance, an impeccable personality that is compatible with social values. The mediator between the individual and outside world, the body has increasingly turned into a socio-cultural entity with symbols and meanings embedded in it. Affected by society and the media, individuals get oriented to situations to which they were previously unfamiliar. They have got the chance to interfere in a body that is of potentially unlimited strength for transformation. As it was already mentioned, women invest a lot of value in appearance and its beauty as compared with men. At least 16 million dollars are annually spent in Iran on cosmetic surgery. Nonetheless, a total of 52 women lose their lives due to liposuction each year. Cosmetic surgery is infused with risks and complications. Nevertheless, it has turned into a social value. Given the time required for recovery (from at least one week to three months) and the heavy expenses required, it is thoughtfully interesting that over 10,000 Iranian women have annual requests for cosmetic surgery.
Mirsadi et al (2010) showed that 24.2 percent of the volunteers for cosmetic surgery are married housewives whose main motivation is to fulfill the demands of their spouses. Tavasoli et al (2013) demonstrated that the main motivation for women towards cosmetic surgery is to obtain beauty as contributor to increased confidence and improved quality of the relationship with their husbands. The main objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between cosmetic surgery and psychological variables such as self-esteem and marital satisfaction along with its components.
| Methods|| |
The study had an ex-post facto, pre-post-test design. Using purposive sampling method, a total of 30 married women, aged from 18 to 35 years, who had referred for cosmetic surgery to clinics in Tehran, were incorporated during a six- month period. Data collection instruments included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, which were completed two times with a six-month interval. The obtained data were analyzed using inferential statistics (analysis of variance for repeated measures, related sample test, and Pearson correlation coefficient).
| Results|| |
Cosmetic surgery affects marital satisfaction and marital satisfaction changes before and after cosmetic surgery.
To test the first hypothesis, repeatable test measurement was used. [Table 1] indicates the average marital satisfaction before and after the surgery. [Table 2] shows the results of analysis of variance for repeated measures for marital satisfaction score differences before and after the surgery. Results from [Table 2] show that the difference in marital satisfaction scores is not significant before and after cosmetic surgery (p < 0.05). In reverse, there is a -1.13% decline in marital satisfaction scores after surgery.
|Table 2: The results of analysis of variance for repeated measures for marital satisfaction score differences before and after the surgery|
Click here to view
[Table 3] shows the comparison of mean scores of marital satisfaction dimensions before and after surgery. Comparison of the related means was used to compare pre-test and post-test scores. The table shows that the difference before and after cosmetic surgery was statistically significant in marital satisfaction dimensions (marital relations, financial management, leisure, and sex) in is (P < 0.01) and (P < 0.05). In other words, the difference has increased in terms of sexual relations but decreased in terms of marital relations, financial management, and leisure. Neither is the difference significant between before and after cosmetic surgery in terms of marital dimensions (marriage and children, relatives and friends, religious orientation, personal problems, and conflict resolution) (P > 0.05). In other words, such parameters remained somewhat similar before surgery and after surgery.
|Table 3: The comparison of mean scores of marital satisfaction dimensions before and after surgery|
Click here to view
Cosmetic surgery affects self-esteem, and self-esteem changes before and after cosmetic surgery.
To test the second hypothesis test, repeated tests measurement was used. [Table 4] shows the means of self-esteem mean scores before and after cosmetic surgery. [Table 5] shows the results of analysis of variance for repeated measures of self-esteem mean score differences before and after surgery. Results of [Table 5] show that the difference in the means of self-esteem mean scores before and after cosmetic surgery is statistically significant (P < 0.01). There is 33% increase in the means of self-esteem after surgery than before surgery.
|Table 4: The means of self-esteem mean scores before and after cosmetic surgery|
Click here to view
|Table 5: The difference in the means of self-esteem mean scores before and after cosmetic surgery|
Click here to view
There is correlation between Self-esteem and marital satisfaction In order to test the third hypothesis, Pearson correlation test was used. [Table 6] shows the correlation between marital satisfaction and self-esteem of the participants. [Table 6] indicates that the correlation between marital satisfaction and self- esteem of women is statistically significant (P < 0.01). Also, the correlation coefficient between marital satisfaction and self-esteem of the women was 0.52. That is, as self-esteem increases, marital satisfaction rises too.
| Discussion|| |
It can be said, on the basis of the obtained results, that in case the surgery is successfully performed, it can affect the relations between human beings and at times the social situations in which people are involved. As mentioned, one such situation is the marital interaction and the relationship between spouses. Additionally, marital satisfaction and self-esteem were found to correlate such that in dimensions such as sexual relations and self-esteem, there was enhancement, or rather, improvement.
Overall, according to the interview taken before and after cosmetic surgery, many of the married women who underwent cosmetic surgery with an aim to increase satisfaction and attention of their spouses failed to fulfill the purpose after surgery. On the other hand, however, the operation led to enhanced self-esteem of the women which is understandable in line with previous studies in this regard.
The more important point is that increased self-esteem correlates positively with increased sexual satisfaction. This can be significant for couple therapy and counseling offered before marriage to couples. Woolf and Chapex argue that cosmetic industries, including surgeries, enjoy the reduced self-esteem of women and that women are transformed into beings who would undergo financial burdens and pain in search of beauty. The obtained results of the current study are consistent with the results of some investigations such as Gavanji et al (2015) and Noghani et al. (2010). In other cases, these surgeries have reduced marital relations, financial management, and leisure.
What was described above are true with regard to successfully performed surgeries. However, unsuccessful surgeries also occur constantly about which concrete statistics are not available. Therefore, performance of such surgeries always presents risks, and advice should be sought before making any decision about the surgery.
A research as such is always faced with several limitations the most important of which is doubtful honesty of the participants and attrition of the participants because of the time interval between pre- and post-tests.
| Conflict of Interest|| |
| References|| |
Brown B. Body image and femininity. Br J Med Psychology. 2001;59:279-87.
Haas CF, Champion A, Secor D. Motivating factors for seeking cosmetic surgery: a synthesis of the literature. Plast Surg Nurs. 2008;28(4):177-82.
Mohammadpanah A, Yaghoobi H, Yusefi R. Personality traits and defense mechanisms in patients seeking for cosmetic surgery. J Derm Cosmetic. 2012;3(2):72-82.
Masoudzadeh A, Karkhaneh YM, Tirgari A. The comparison between personality models and Rhinoplasty applicants’ general health status and control group. Journal of Shahed University. 2009;16():53-8.
Katzmman, Melanie A, Lee, Sing. Beyon82d body image: The integration of feminist and transcultural theories in the understanding of self starvation, The International Journal of Eating Disorders. 1997;22(4):385-94.
Tavassoli Gh. A, Modiri F. Survey of Women's attitude to cosmetic surgery in Tehran. So Psycho Wom. 2012;10(1):61-82.
Niknam M, Fararoui M, Kamkar A, Fouladi N, Mohamadi A. Comparison Of Perfectionism In People Who Have Cosmetic Rhinoplasty Surgery And Control Group In Yasouj City. J Sch Paramed Tehran Univer Med Scienc. 2012;1(6):52-60.
Barzegar A. cosmetic surgery, Many applicants, woman. 2002;2:20-15.
Mirsardoo T, Kaldi A, Ataei B. The relationship between social factors - cultural tendency in aesthetic surgery Women in Karaj. Woman and Family Studies. 2010;3(10):145-64.
Comparing marital adjustment and irrational beliefs in women with and without cosmetic surgery,govanji s. Khoshkansh a, taqipour e., Journal of Cultural Eof women and the Family. 2015;31.
Noqani m, Varshoy s, khorasani m, Mazlom m. Factors affecting cosmetic surgery for women. Psychological Studies. 2010;8:75-101.
| Authors|| |
Dr. Reyhaneh Souri
Teaching at Payame Nor university- advisor at eductional system has published following manuscripts
- Compare mindfulness and social vitality among social network users
- Relationship between emitional intelligence personality traits and coping styles on psychological well-being
- The place of social participation of children in the family
Dr. Mona Porjorat
Working as the clinical psychologist and family therapist has published following manuscripts.
- Compare mindfulness and social vitality among social network users
- A Comparative Study of Attachment Style and Personality Traits in Women with Marital Infidelity Experience and Those Who Didn’t Have Such an Experience
- A comparative study of Early Maladaptive Schemas in women with marital infidelity experience and those who didn’t have such an experience in Iran
- The place of social participation of children in the family.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]